Term Pronunciation Meaning Source
adenosine triphosphate| Adenosine-5'-triphosphate (ATP) /trīˈfäsˌfāt/ A compound consisting of an adenosine molecule bonded to three phosphate groups present in all living tissue. The breakage of one phosphate linkage (to form adenosine diphosphate ADP) provides energy for physiological processes such as muscular contraction. ATP is often referred to as the "energy currency" every cell in the body requires to function. google
alpha linolenic acid Linolenic acid is an organic compound found in many common vegetable oils. Alpha-linolenic acid, an omega-3 fatty acid, is found in many vegetable oils| with good concentrations in canola (rapeseed), flaxseed, hemp, soybean and walnut.

Alpha Lipoic Acid alpha lipoic acid (ALA)[3] is an organosulfur compound derived from octanoic acid. An antioxidant found in the body which helps maintain normal nerve function. ALA also helps to regenerate other antioxidants such as CoQ10 and vitamin C. ALA has been shown to aid in blood sugar control and is a weak chelator of heavy metal toxins.

Alzheimer's Alzheimer's disease (AD), also known in medical literature as Alzheimer disease, is the most common form of dementia. There is no cure for the disease, which worsens as it progresses, and eventually leads to death. wikipedia
Antioxidants A substance such as vitamin C or E that neutralized or removes potentially damaging oxidizing agents in a living organism google
Arginine /ˈärjəˌnēn/ A basic amino acid that is a constituent of most proteins. It is an essential nutrient in the diet of vertebrates. An amino acid found in animal foods that plays an important role in several physiological processes. google and wiktionary
atherosclerosis /ˌaTHəˌrōskləˈrōsis/ A disease of the arteries characterized by the deposition of plaques of fatty material on their inner walls google
Beta-Alanine ë_-Alanine| a naturally occurring beta amino acid. Supplementation with ë_-alanine has been shown to increase the concentration of carnosine in muscle,| decrease fatigue in athletes and increase total muscular work done. wikipedia
Beta-carotene ë_-Carotene is a strongly-coloured red-orange pigment abundant in plants and fruits. Plant carotenoids are the primary dietary source of provitamin A worldwide, with ë_-carotene as the most well-known provitamin A carotenoid. wikipedia
branched chain amino acids(BCAA) An amino acid having aliphatic side-chains with a branch (a carbon atom bound to more than two other carbon atoms). Among the proteinogenic amino acids| there are three BCAAs: leucine| isoleucine and valine. The BCAAs are among the nine essential amino acids for humans, accounting for 35% of the essential amino acids in muscle proteins and 40% of the preformed amino acids required by mammals. wikipedia
calciferol /kalˈsifəˌrôl/ One of the D vitamins, a sterol that is formed when its isomer ergosterol is exposed to ultraviolet light, and that is routinely added to dairy products google
Carnosine Carnosine (beta-alanyl-L-histidine) is a dipeptide of the amino acids beta-alanine and histidine. It is highly concentrated in muscle and brain tissues. wikipedia
carotenoids Any of a class of mainly yellow, orange, or red fat-soluble pigments, including carotene, which give color to plant parts such as ripe tomatoes and autumn leaves. google
choline /ˈkōlēn/ A strongly basic compound| HON(CH3)3CH2CH2OH, occurring widely in living tissues and important in the synthesis and transport of lipids. Choline is often noted as having positive effects on cognition and memory. It is an important factor in the production of acetylcholine| a neurotransmitter with important in memory and brain speed. google
chondroitin /känˈdroitn/ A compound that is a major constituent of cartilage and other connective tissue. google
Citrulline An amino acid that does not occur in proteins but is an intermediate in the conversion of ornithine to arginine. Citrulline in the form of citrulline malate is sold as a performance-enhancing athletic dietary supplement| which was shown to reduce muscle fatigue in a preliminary clinical trials. and wikipedia
CoQ10| coenzyme Q Coenzyme Q10, an important antioxidant also known as ubiquinone, ubiquinol, coenzyme Q| and abbreviated at times to CoQ10. This oil-soluble, vitamin-like substance is present in most eukaryotic cells, primarily in the mitochondria. It is a component of the electron transport chain and participates in aerobic cellular respiration, generating energy in the form of ATP. wikipedia
creatine /ˈkrēəˌtēn/ A compound formed in protein metabolism and present in much living tissue. It is involved in the supply of energy for muscular contraction. google
Curcumin The principal curcuminoid of the popular Indian spice turmeric, which is a member of the ginger family (Zingiberaceae). The curcuminoids are natural phenols and are responsible for the yellow color of turmeric. Curcumin is known for its antioxidant and potent anti-inflammatory properties. wikipedia
docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) An omega-3 fatty acid that is a primary structural component of the human brain and retina. Dietary DHA may reduce the risk of heart disease by reducing the level of blood triglycerides in humans. wikipedia
Dopamine /ˈdōpəˌmēn/ A compound present in the body as a neurotransmitter and a precursor of other substances including epinephrine. Dopamine is involved in pleasure/reward functions of the brain and also important for quick reaction time and mental focus. google
D-Ribose D-ribose is a sugar which is present in energy-carrying compounds in our bodies such as ADP (adenosine diphosphate) and ATP (adenosine triphosphate). It is also added to some sports and energy beverages. D-ribose is a naturally occurring five-carbon sugar that is a sweet| solid| water-soluble substance found in all living cells. It is used in our beverages to provide sweetness and a source of calories. It can be made in the body from other substances and is found in many biological molecules and is found in many foods. L-ribose does not have biological activity. D-ribose is sometimes referred to as just ribose. For athletes| D-ribose has been proven to reduce oxidative stress from hard training and competitive events. It also aids in the removal of lactic acid from working muscles.

eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) An omega-3 fatty acid used for a variety of functions in the human body. wikipedia
electrolytes The ionized or ionizable constituents of a living cell| blood| or other organic matter. Common electrolytes include potassium| magnesium| and sodium. google
enzymes A substance produced by a living organism that acts as a catalyst to bring about a specific biochemical reaction. Enzymes are protein based structures that require micronutrient cofactors, vitamins and minerals, as well as energy from ATP to function. The human body uses amino acids to build over 65|000 different enzymes, most of them made in the liver. google
essential fatty acids (EFA) Fatty acids that humans and other animals must ingest because the body requires them for good health but cannot synthesize them. The term "essential fatty acid" refers to fatty acids required for biological processes| and not those that only act as fuel. EPA and DHA are two examples of essential fatty acids, commonly available in fish oil. wikipedia
fibromyalgia /ˌfībrōmīˈalj(ē)ə/ A chronic disorder characterized by widespread musculoskeletal pain, fatigue, and tenderness in localized areas. google
free radicals An atom or group of atoms with at least one unpaired electron; in the body it is usually an oxygen molecule that has lost an electron and will stabilize itself by stealing an electron from a nearby molecule; "in the body free radicals are high-energy particles that ricochet wildly and damage cells". Free radicals are implicated in metabolic distress, DNA damage| and are core to the free radical theory of aging.
glucosamine /glo͞oˈkōsəˌmēn/ A natural component of human cartilage. A synthesized form of this may be taken as a dietary supplement to support joint health and relieve arthritis pain. google
glutathione (GSH) /ˌglo͞otəˈTHīōn/ A tripeptide antioxidant| preventing damage to important cellular components caused by reactive oxygen species such as free radicals and peroxides. Glutathione is considered to be the body's most potent antioxidant and plays a crucial role in detoxifying the body from harmful substances such as synthetic environmental chemicals. Glutathione is produced in the liver, requiring several important nutrient cofactors such as the amino acid cysteine. wikipedia
Histidine /ˈhistəˌdēn/ A basic amino acid that is a constituent of most proteins. It is an essential nutrient in the diet of vertebrates and is the source from which histamine is derived in the body. google
isoleucine /ˌīsəˈlo͞osēn/ A hydrophobic amino acid that is a constituent of most proteins. It is an essential nutrient in the diet of vertebrates google
Lactic acid A colorless syrupy organic acid formed in sour milk and produced as a waste product in the muscle tissues during strenuous exercise. google
leucine /ˈlo͞oˌsēn/ A hydrophobic amino acid that is a constituent of most proteins. It is an essential nutrient in the diet of vertebrates and often found to be low in many athletes| particularly endurance athletes. google
Lipid peroxidation The oxidative degradation of lipids. It is the process by which free radicals "steal" electrons from the lipids in cell membranes, resulting in cell damage. wikipedia
low-glycemic The glycemic index (GI) is a measure of the effects of carbohydrates on blood sugar levels. Carbohydrates that break down more slowly, releasing glucose more gradually into the bloodstream, have a low GI. Foods with a high glycemic index such as sugar and flour raise blood sugar levels very rapidly. wikipedia
magnesium glycinate Magnesium is an essential element in biological systems. ATP (adenosine triphosphate), the main source of energy in cells, must be bound to a magnesium ion in order to be biologically active. Supplements based on amino acid chelates, such as Mg glycinate, are much better tolerated by the digestive system and much more absorbable by the body the other forms of magnesium such as Mg oxide or Mg carbonate. wikipedia
maladaptation syndrome A long-term inability to adapt to "shift work" resulting from the stress of desynchronized circadian systems, sleep deprivation, domestic and social dysharmony, and health problems.
melatonin /ˌmeləˈtōnin/ A hormone secreted by the pineal gland in the brain that inhibits melanin formation and is thought to be concerned with regulating the reproductive cycle and well as sleep induction. In animals, circulating levels of the hormone melatonin vary in a daily cycle, thereby allowing the entrainment of the circadian rhythms of several biological functions including sleep. google and wikipedia
methyl donors A chemical compound that contains a methyl group (CH3) and through a reaction in the body is capable of donating this chemical group so that it can be used to make other important substances in the body. S-Adenosylmethionine, produced from methionine, an amino acid, acts as a methyl donor. S-Adenosylmethionine is required for the synthesis of carnitine and creatine. Other examples of methyl donors include methylcobalamin (vitamin B12), folinic acid, dimethylglycine, and trimethylglycine.
Methylation In biological systems, methylation is catalyzed by enzymes; such methylation can be involved in modification of heavy metals, regulation of gene expression, regulation of protein function and RNA metabolism, detoxification, DNA protection, neurotransmitter production, and immune system regulation by influencing T cell production and function. wikipedia
micronutrients mī'krō-nū'trē-ənt Chemical elements or substances required in large or trace amounts for the normal growth and development of living organisms. Vitamins, minerals, trace minerals, amino acids, and fatty acids are often referred to generally as micronutrients. google
neurotransmitters /ˌn(y)o͝orōˈtranzmitər/ A chemical substance that is released at the end of a nerve fiber by the arrival of a nerve impulse and, by diffusing across the synapse or junction, causes the transfer of the impulse to another nerve fiber, a muscle fiber, or some other structure. Neurotransmitters are the primary communicators or signaling molecules used in the brain for the central regulation of organ function, thought, cognition, memory, and mood. google
Nitric Oxide Also known as nitrogen monoxide, is a binary molecule that is an important cellular signaling molecule involved in many physiological and pathological processes. Nitric oxide is important for proper vascular function, allowing for the dilation of smooth muscles that control circulation and blood perfusion. wikipedia
nucleotide /ˈn(y)o͞oklēəˌtīd/ A compound consisting of a nucleoside linked to a phosphate group. Nucleotides form the basic structural unit of nucleic acids such as DNA. google
overtraining syndrome A physical| behavioral| and emotional condition that occurs when the volume and intensity of an individual's exercise exceeds their recovery capacity. When suffering from over-training syndrome (OTS) one ceases making fitness progress and can even begin to lose strength and conditioning. wikipedia
phytonutrients /ˌfītōˈno͞otrēənt/ Substances found in certain plant-based foods such as fruits and vegetables which are believed to be beneficial to human health and may help prevent various diseases. google
transdermal /transˈdərməl/ Relating to or denoting the application of a medicine, drug, or micronutrient through the skin so that it is absorbed slowly into the body. google
triglyceride /trīˈglisəˌrīd/ An ester formed from glycerol and three fatty acid groups. Triglycerides are the main constituents of natural fats and oils, and high concentrations in the blood indicate an elevated risk of stroke. google
ubiquinone /yo͞oˈbikwəˌnōn/ Another name for Coenzyme Q10. May also refer to any of a class of compounds that occur in all living cells and that act as electron-transfer agents in cell respiration and energy production. google
valine /ˈvalˌēn/ An amino acid that is a constituent of most proteins. It is one of the branched chain amino acids and is an essential nutrient in the diet of vertebrates google
vitamin D3 Cholecalciferol is a form of vitamin D, also called vitamin D3 or calciol. Cholecalciferol is synthesized in the skin from 7-dehydrocholesterol under the action of ultraviolet B light. It reaches an equilibrium after several minutes depending on several factors including conditions of sunlight (latitude, season, cloud cover, altitude), age of skin, and color of skin. wikipedia
Whey protein A mixture of globular proteins isolated from whey, the liquid material created as a by-product of cheese production. wikipedia
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